SQL的四種類型DDL/DML/DCL/TCL

SQL Command有四大類型,各是DDL/DML/DCL/TCL。



DDL (Data Definition Language
CREATE - to create objects in the database 
ALTER - alters the structure of the database 
DROP - delete objects from the database 
TRUNCATE - remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed 
COMMENT - add comments to the data dictionary 
RENAME - rename an object

DML (Data Manipulation Language)
SELECT - retrieve data from the a database  (也有說select是DRL: Data Retrieval Language)
INSERT - insert data into a table 
UPDATE - updates existing data within a table 
DELETE - deletes all records from a table, the space for the records remain 
MERGE - UPSERT operation (insert or update) 
CALL - call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram 
EXPLAIN PLAN - explain access path to data 
LOCK TABLE - control concurrency

DCL (Data Control Language)
GRANT - gives user's access privileges to database 
REVOKE - withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command

TCL (Transaction Control Language)
COMMIT - save work done 
SAVEPOINT - identify a point in a transaction to which you can later roll back 
ROLLBACK - restore database to original since the last COMMIT 
SET TRANSACTION - Change transaction options like isolation level and what rollback segment to use 

參考來源: http://www.xpode.com/ShowArticle.aspx?Articleid=156

SQL Statement Syntax
AND / OR SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition
AND|OR condition
ALTER TABLE ALTER TABLE table_name
ADD column_name datatype
or
ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP COLUMN column_name
AS (alias) SELECT column_name AS column_alias
FROM table_name
or
SELECT column_name
FROM table_name  AS table_alias
BETWEEN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name
BETWEEN value1 AND value2
CREATE DATABASE CREATE DATABASE database_name
character set utf8
collate utf8_general_ci
CREATE TABLE CREATE TABLE table_name
(
column_name1 data_type,
column_name2 data_type,
column_name2 data_type,
...
)
CREATE INDEX CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name)
or
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name)
CREATE VIEW CREATE VIEW view_name AS
SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition
DELETE DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE some_column=some_value
or
DELETE FROM table_name
(Note: Deletes the entire table!!)
DELETE * FROM table_name
(Note: Deletes the entire table!!)
DROP DATABASE DROP DATABASE database_name
DROP INDEX DROP INDEX table_name.index_name (SQL Server)
DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name (MS Access)
DROP INDEX index_name (DB2/Oracle)

ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP INDEX index_name (MySQL)
DROP TABLE DROP TABLE table_name
EXISTS IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM table_name WHERE id = ?)
BEGIN
--do what needs to be done if exists
END
ELSE
BEGIN
--do what needs to be done if not
END
GROUP BY SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING aggregate_function(column_name) operator value
IN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name
IN (value1,value2,..)
INSERT INTO INSERT INTO table_name
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,....)
or
INSERT INTO table_name
(column1, column2, column3,...)
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,....)
or
INSERT INTO table2 (column_name(s)) SELECT column_name(s) FROM table1;
INNER JOIN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
INNER JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
LEFT JOIN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
LEFT JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
RIGHT JOIN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
RIGHT JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
FULL JOIN SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
FULL JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
LIKE SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name LIKE pattern

SELECT * FROM Store_Information WHERE store_name LIKE '%AN%';
ORDER BY SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
ORDER BY column_name [ASC|DESC]
SELECT SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
SELECT * SELECT *
FROM table_name
SELECT DISTINCT SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
SELECT INTO SELECT *
INTO new_table_name [IN externaldatabase]
FROM old_table_name
or
SELECT column_name(s)
INTO new_table_name [IN externaldatabase]
FROM old_table_name
SELECT TOP SELECT TOP number|percent column_name(s)
FROM table_name
TRUNCATE TABLE TRUNCATE TABLE table_name
UNION SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1
UNION
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
UNION ALL SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1
UNION ALL
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
UPDATE UPDATE table_name
SET column1=value, column2=value,...
WHERE some_column=some_value
WHERE SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value

參考來源 http://www.w3schools.com/sql/sql_quickref.asp

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